1. When opening an WAV/BWF file, my audio software crashes. What should I check?

2. What can't I concatenate correctly two segments of audio within 1 file? Is my file size too big?

3. My audio software gives me an error such as 16 bit file, 24 bit file, or 32 bit files not supported.

4. My audio software does not support the frequency.

5. How many audio channels can I save in one WAV/BWF file?

6. What other headers are analyzed in further details by WFA?



When opening an WAV/BWF file, my audio software crashes. What should I check?

1. Wav and Bwf files contains numerous descriptive header parameters. Those parameters can be corrupted during a transmission or during a disk access (read/write). So the first
thing to check is the header names and size. The number of optional headers may result in a non-supported WAV by your audio software. When using WFA converter BWF to Monos or Monos to BWF, it is possible to output a WAV/BWF file containing only mandatory headers with header size correction.

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What can't I concatenate correctly two segments of audio within 1 file? Is my file size too big?

2. WAV file size if defined in the RIFF header in a 32bit field. This means that the maximum size that can be declared is 2^32 Bytes = 4 GB. To avoid this limitation, the RF64 and ds64 headers replace the RIFF header to define the file size over 2x 32bits fields. The new limitation is then 2^64 = 18 446 744 TB which is sufficient.

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My audio software gives me an error such as 16 bit file, 24 bit file, or 32 bit files not supported.

3. The quantification of WAV/BWF file is defined in the fmt header. 8 bits quantification means that 1x Byte are allocated per audio sample value (256 values are possible). 16 bits quantification means that 2x Bytes are allocated per audio sample value (65536 values are possible). 24 bits quantification means that 3x Bytes are allocated per audio sample value (16777216 values are possible). 32 bits quantification means that 4x Bytes are allocated per audio sample value (4294967296 values are possible).

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My audio software does not support the frequency?

4. The sample rate parameters in the fmt header defines the frequency that the audio software should per sample value. The common values for sample rate are: 8 000 Hz, 11 025 Hz, 22 050 Hz, 32 000 Hz, 44 100 Hz, 48 000 Hz. In broadcast domain, 48 kHz is the frame rate typically used.

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How many audio channels can I save in one WAV/BWF file?

5. One of the parameters of the fmt header sets the number of audio channels contained in the file. Channels 1 through 8 can be mono or up to 5.1 + 2.

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What other headers are analyzed in further details by WFA?

6.

Mandatory headers:
RIFF: defines the file size <4GB.
RF64: defines the file size >4GB.
ds64: defines the file size >4GB.
fmt: defines quantification, sample rate and number of channels.
data: contains the sample values of all the audio channels.


Optional headers:
bext: Broadcast data with timecode.
smpl: Manufacturer information.
dbmd: A specific Dolby header determines all the Dolby E and Dolby D metadata that can be set for
further encoding processes.
LIST: list of data.

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